Thursday, May 27, 2010

Javanese articles : Yogyakarta

Water palace in Yogyakarta IndonesiaYogyakarta is one of the provinces in Indonesia which lies in the southern part of Java island. The beauty of Javanese culture that there are people in Yogyakarta province as a region made famous tourist visits. If you are interested in finding out more about Yogyakarta, please read the following article.

The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is the smallest province of Indonesia (excluding Jakarta). It is located on the island of Java. Yogyakarta is the only province in Indonesia that is still governed by that area's precolonial monarchy; The Sultan of Yogyakarta serves as the elected governor of the province. In Javanese (and Dutch) it is pronounced (jogjakarta). The city of Yogyakarta is the capital of the province.


Yogyakarta is located in south-central Java. It is surrounded by the province of Central Java (Jawa Tengah) and the Indian Ocean in the south.
The population of DIY in 2003 was approximately 3,000,000. The province of Yogyakarta has a total area of 3,185.80 km2. Yogyakarta has the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the Jakarta Capital Region. However it has, along with adjacent areas in Central Java, some of the highest population densities of Java.

Administrative divisions

Malioboro, the most famous street in Yogyakarta city, IndonesiaYogyakarta province is subdivided into four regencies (kabupaten) and one city (kota):
- Bantul Regency (506.86 km2)
- Gunung Kidul Regency (1,485.36 km2)
- Kulon Progo Regency (586.27 km2)
- Sleman Regency (574.82 km2)
- Yogyakarta City (32.5 km2)


The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 km². While the city sprawls in all directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north, centering around the site of a few buildings with distinctive Dutch colonial-era architecture and the contemporary commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of sidewalk vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo, not far from Fort Vredeburg a restored Dutch fort.
At Yogyakarta's center is the kraton, or Sultan's palace. Surrounding the kraton is a densely populated residential neighborhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan's sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined Taman Sari, built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned. For a time, it was used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and an effort to renew the neighborhood around the kraton has begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.


The city is divided into 14 districts (kecamatan).
- Gondokusuman
- Jetis
- Tegalrejo
- Umbulharjo
- Kotagede
- Mergangsan
- Ngampilan
- Danurejan
- Kraton
- Wirobrajan
- Pakualaman
- Mantrijeron
- Gedongtengen
- Gondomanan

Arts and culture

The kraton's main pavilion in Yogyakarta, IndonesiaYogyakarta is known for its silver work, leather puppets used for shadow plays (wayang kulit), and a unique style of making batik dyed fabric. It is also known for its vivid contemporary art scene. Yogyakarta is also known for its gamelan music, including the unique style Gamelan Yogyakarta, which developed in the courts.
Yogyakarta is also a haven for underground art. It is home to many independent filmmaking communities, independent musicians, performance artists, and visual artists. One underground community that is internationally reputable among art collectors but barely heard of within the country is the Taring Padi community in Bantul, which produces posters using a technique called cukil. daren kidul Dono Kerto Turi

Demography and language

Most population is Javanese, but being a student city, there are also significant population of people from other ethnicities in Indonesia. This status makes Yogyakarta as one of the most heterogeneous city in terms of ethnicity in Indonesia. Indonesian as the official national language, and Javanese are widely used as daily spoken languages, especially by the Javanese.


King Palace in Yogyakarta, Indonesia The Yogyakarta Sultanate, formally the Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, was formed in 1755 when the existing Sultanate of Mataram was divided by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in two under the Treaty of Giyanti. This treaty states that the Sultanate of Mataram was to be divided into the Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat with Yogyakarta as the capital and Mangkubumi who became Sultan Hamengkubuwono I as its Sultan and the Sultanate of Surakarta Hadiningrat with Surakarta as the capital and Pakubuwono III who was the ruler of the Sultanate of Mataram as its Sultan. The Sultan Hamengkubuwono I spent the next 37 years building the new capital, with the Kraton as the centerpiece and the court at Surakarta as the blueprint model. By the time he died in 1792, his territory exceeded Surakarta's.
The ruler Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (April 12, 1912 - 1988) held a degree from the Dutch Leiden University, and held for a time the largely ceremonial position of Vice-President of Indonesia, in recognition of his status, as well as Minister of Finance and Minister of Defense.
In support of Indonesia declaring independence from the Dutch and Japanese occupation, in September 5, 1945, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya and Sri Paku Alam VIII in Yogya declared their sultanates to be part of the Republic of Indonesia. The declaration is as follows:
"We, Hamengkubuwono IX, Sultan of the Land of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, declared:
That Land of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat function as a monarchy as a Special Territory of the Republic of Indonesia
That we as the Regional Head of Yogyakarta held control and power in the Land of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, and upon that cause in which the situation nowadays all government elements in the Land of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat from this moment is all under our control and with it too all other authorities we take over entirely.
That the connection between the Land of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat and the Central Government of the Republic of Indonesia is direct and we will only bear responsibility upon our Land directly to the President of the Republic of Indonesia.
We ordered that all residents of the Land of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat to heed our mandate.
Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, 28 Puasa, Ehe, 1876" (Javanese Calendar), Gregorian Date: 5 Sept 1945
In return for this support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was then granted fully in 1950.
By this act, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was appointed as governor for life. During the Indonesian National Revolution against the Dutch after World War II (1945-1950), the capital of the newly declared Indonesian republic was temporarily moved to Yogyakarta when the Dutch reoccupied Jakarta from January 1946 until August 1950.
The current ruler of Yogyakarta is his son, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, who holds a law degree from Universitas Gadjah Mada. Upon the elder sultan's death, the position of governor, according to the agreement with Indonesia, was to pass to his heir. However, the central government at that time insisted on an election. In 1998, Sultan Hamengkubuwono X was elected as governor by the provincial house of representatives (DPRD) of Yogyakarta, defying the will of the central government. "I may be a sultan," he has been quoted in Asia Week as saying, "but is it not possible for me to also be a democrat?"


Due to the importance of Yogyakarta during the war of independence from the Dutch, there are numerous memorials and museums. Yogya Kembali, and Fort Vredeburg are two major museums of about 11 named in the city.
To the east of the town centre is a large air-force museum; as Indonesia was for a period in the Soviet sphere of influence this museum contains a number of vintage Russian aircraft not widely available for inspection in the NATO sphere of influence. The collection includes examples of the Mig 15 trainer (NATO designation Mongol), MiG 17 (Fresco), MiG 19 (Farmer), Mig 21 (Fishbed) and Tu16 (Badger), together with an assortment of American and British aircraft.


Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport which connects the city with some other major cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali, Makassar, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, and Pontianak. It also connects the city with Singapore (operated by Garuda Indonesia) and Kuala Lumpur (operated by AirAsia and Malaysia Airlines).
The city is located on one of the two major railway lines across Java between Jakarta / Bandung and Surabaya. It has two passenger railway stations, Tugu Railway Station serves business and executive class trains while Lempuyangan Station serves economy class trains. Both stations are located in downtown Yogyakarta city.
The city has an extensive system of public city buses, and is a major destination for inter-city buses to elsewhere on Java or Bali, as well as taxis, andongs, and becaks. Motorbikes are by far the most commonly used personal transportation, but an increasing number of residents own automobiles.
Starting from early 2008, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Jogja. This system is modeled after TransJakarta. But unlike Trans Jakarta, there is no particular lane for Trans Jogja buses, they run on main streets. Currently there are six lines of Trans Jogja service, with routes throughout main streets of Yogyakarta, which some overlap one another. The lines extend from Jombor bus station in the north as far as Giwangan main bus terminal in the south and Prambanan bus shelter in the east via Adisucipto International Airport. Trans Jogja has now become a new trademark of Yogyakarta and frequently used by local citizens and tourists alike.
In a recent forum discussion on long-term future transportation plans in Yogyakarta held in Universitas Gadjah Mada, Head of Yogyakarta region transportation master plan team, Prof Ahmad Munawar, said that, in 2016 various modern transport modes include monorail, aerobus, and tram will begin operating in the city and the region.


Jogjakarta is the home of several state and private universities, among them is the first (private higher education)university in Indonesia, Universitas Islam Indonesia (U.I.I.) [2] which was established in 1945 with the name "Sekolah Tinggi Islam" (Islam School of Higher Education) followed by the first state own university in Indonesia, Universitas Gajah Mada (Gajah Mada University).
As a city of art and culture, Jogjakarta is the home of Institut Seni Indonesia - Jogjakarta (Indonesia Institute of the Arts), Indonesia's first and finnest Art School.
Presently, Jogjakarta is the home to more than 50 institutions for higher education in Indonesia, the highest number of higher education institutions located in one province through out Indonesia. Because of this fact, Jogjakarta is dubbed as "Student City" or "Kota Pelajar".


Private Universites:
- Universitas Islam Indonesia (UII) -
- Universitas Muhammadiyah Jogjakarta (UMY) (Muhammadiyah University Jogjakarta) -
- Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (UAD) (Ahmad Dahlan University) -
- Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jogja (UPN) (National Development University) -
- Universitas Teknologi Yogyakarta (UTY) (Technological University of Jogjakarta) -
- Universitas Sanata Dharma (USD) (Sanata Dharma University) -
- Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta (UAJY) -
- Universitas Cokroaminoto (UNCOK)(Cokroaminoto University) -
- Universitas Dirgantara Indonesia (Dirgantara Indonesia University)
- Universitas Gunung Kidul (Gunung Kidul University) -
- Universitas Kristen Immanuel (Immanuel Christian University)
- Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta -
- Universitas Proklamasi '45 (UNPROK) -
- Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa (UST) -
- Univ. Mercubuana (dh/ Univ. Wangsa Manggala) -
- Universitas Widya Mataram
State Universities:
- Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM)(Gajah Mada University) -
- Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta (UNY) (Yogyakarta State University) -
- Universitas Islam Negeri Jogjakarta "Sunan Kalijaga" (UIN)(Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University)
- Institut Seni Indonesia - Jogjakarta (ISI) - (Indonesian Institute of Art - Jogjakarta) ht tp:// "The first and finnest Higher Art Education Institution in Indonesia"
- Institut Pertanian (INSTIPER) ("STIPER" Institute of Farming)
- Institut Pertanian (INTAN) Yogyakarta (Yogyakarta Institute of Farming)
- Institut Sains dan Teknologi "AKPRIND" (IST Akprind) ("AKPRIND" Institut of Science and Technology)
- Institiut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (IKIP) PGRI - Wates (Institute of Education Science - Wates)
College of Bussiness Administration:
- S.T.I.E. "Kerjasama" (STIKER)
- S.T.I.E. "Widya Wiwaha" (WW) -
- S.T.I.E. Solusi Bisnis Indonesia (SBI) -
- S.T.I.E. Nusa Megar Kencana -
- S.T.I.E. Mitra Indonesia
- S.T.I.E. Bank
- S.T.I.E. Pariwisata API
College of information technology and computer management :
- S.T.M.I.K. "AMIKOM" Yogyakarta -
- S.T.M.I.K. "AKAKOM" Yogyakarta -
- S.T.M.I.K. "El Rahma" Yogyakarta -
- S.T.M.I.K. "Pelita Nusantara" Yogyakarta -
- S.T.M.I.K. "Jendral Ahmad Yani" -
College of technology
- S.T.T. Nasional -
- S.T.T. Adisutjipto -
- S.T.T. Kedirgantaraan
- S.T.T. Yogyakarta
College of health science:
- S.T.I.Kes. Respati -
- S.T.I.Kes. Aisyiah -
- S.T.I.Kes. Achmad Yani
- S.T.I.Kes. Alma Ata
- S.T.I.Kes. Surya Global -
- S.T.I.Kes. Wira Husada
- Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata "AMPTA" (College of Tourism) -
- Sekolah Tinggi Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa
- Akademi Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan Udara (A.A.U.) (Indonesian Air Force Academy - Adisucipto Air Base)
- Akedemi Akuntansi "YKPN" ("Y.K.P.N." Academy of Accounting)
- Akademi Akuntansi Sapta Widya Utama (Sapta Widya Utama Academy of Accounting)
- Akademi Manajemen Putra Jaya (Putra Jaya Academy of Management)
- Akademi Seni Rupa dan Desain "AKSERI" ("AKSERI" Academy of Visual Art and Design)
- Akademi Seni Rupa dan Desain "M.S.D." (M.S.D. Academy of Visual Art and Design)
- Akademi Seni Rupa dan Desain "ADVY" (ADVY Academy of Visual Art and Design)
- Akademi Seni Rupa dan Desain ADA Yogyakarta ("ADA" Academy of Visual Art and Design)
- Akademi Maritim Yogyakarta (A.M.Y.) (Jogjakarta Maritim Academy)


Yogyakarta is the second most important tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta for its strong Javanese culture and tradition. This makes it prominent among other Javanese cities. Along with Surakarta or Solo, a city lying about 64 km to the east, Yogyakarta is the center of Javanese culture.

Health facilities

The major hospitals in Yogyakarta include Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat (RSUP) Dr Sardjito Yogyakarta – Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta, Panti Rapih Hospital, and Jogja International Hospital.

2006 Earthquake

The province of Yogyakarta bore the brunt of a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on 27 May 2006 which killed 5,782 people and left some 36,299 persons injured. More than 135,000 houses are damaged, and 600,000 people are homeless. The earthquake extensively damaged the local region of Bantul, and its surrounding hinterland. The most significant number of deaths occurred in this region.
The coincidence of the recent eruption of Mount Merapi, and the earthquake would not be lost on the older and more superstitious Javanese - as such natural phenonomena are given considerable import within their understanding of the spiritual aspect of such events.

Sister cities

Gangbuk-gu, South Korea
Baalbek, Lebanon
Huế, Vietnam
Hefei, China
Commewijne District, Suriname

Thank you for reading articles about Yogyakarta, and especially for visiting this blog. Hopefully this article useful for you to gain knowledge about Javanese.

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